HTML Interview Questions and Answers

Embark on a journey into the world of web development with 'HTML Interview Questions and Answers.' This blog is your essential resource for preparing for HTML-related interviews, featuring a comprehensive selection of questions and detailed answers. Whether you're a front-end developer, a web designer, or a web enthusiast, our guide provides insights into HTML fundamentals, semantic elements, and best practices. Prepare with confidence and explore the foundation of web development with HTML.

1. What does HTML stand for?

HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language.

2. What is the purpose of the doctype declaration?

The doctype declaration defines the document type and version of HTML used in a web page.

3. What is the difference between block-level and inline-level elements?

Block-level elements start on a new line and take up the full width, while inline-level elements don't start on a new line and only take up as much width as necessary.

4. Explain the difference between <div> and <span> elements.

<div> is a block-level container, and <span> is an inline container. They are used to group elements for styling and layout purposes.

5. Explain the difference between HTML and XHTML.

HTML is an SGML-based markup language, while XHTML is an XML-based version of HTML. XHTML is stricter and requires well-formed documents.

6. Are the HTML tags and elements the same thing?

No. HTML elements are defined by a starting tag, may contain some content and a closing tag.For example, <h1>Heading 1</h1> is a HTML element but just <h1> is a starting tag and </h1> is a closing tag.

7. What are tags and attributes in HTML?

Tags are the primary component of the HTML that defines how the content will be structured/ formatted, whereas Attributes are used along with the HTML tags to define the characteristics of the element. For example, <p align=” center”>Interview questions</p>, in this the ‘align’ is the attribute using which we will align the paragraph to show in the center of the view.

8. What are void elements in HTML?

HTML elements which do not have closing tags or do not need to be closed are Void elements. For Example <br />, <img />, <hr />, etc.

9. What is the advantage of collapsing white space?

In HTML, a blank sequence of whitespace characters is treated as a single space character, Because the browser collapses multiple spaces into a single space character and this helps a developer to indent lines of text without worrying about multiple spaces and maintain readability and understandability of HTML codes.

10. What are HTML Entities?

In HTML some characters are reserved like ‘<’, ‘>’, ‘/’, etc. To use these characters in our webpage we need to use the character entities called HTML Entities. Below are a few mapping between the reserved character and its respective entity character to be used.

Character Entity Name Entity Number
< &lt; &#60;
> &gt; &#62;
& &amp; &#38;
(non-breaking space) Eg. 10  PM &nbsp; Eg. <p>10&nbsp&nbspPM</p> &#160;

11. What is the ‘class’ attribute in HTML?

The class attribute is used to specify the class name for an HTML element. Multiple elements in HTML can have the same class value. Also, it is mainly used to associate the styles written in the stylesheet with the HTML elements.

12. What is the difference between the ‘id’ attribute and the ‘class’ attribute of HTML elements?

Multiple elements in HTML can have the same class value, whereas a value of id attribute of one element cannot be associated with another HTML element.

13. Define multipart form data?

Multipart form data is one of the values of the enctype attribute. It is used to send the file data to the server-side for processing. The other valid values of the enctype attribute are text/plain and application/x-www-form-urlencoded.

14. Describe HTML layout structure.

Every web page has different components to display the intended content and a specific UI. But still, there are few things which are templated and are globally accepted way to structure the web page, such as:

  • <header>: Stores the starting information about the web page.
  • <footer>: Represents the last section of the page.
  • <nav>: The navigation menu of the HTML page.
  • <article>: It is a set of information.
  • <section>: It is used inside the article block to define the basic structure of a page.
  • <aside>: Sidebar content of the page.

15. How to optimize website assets loading?

To optimize website load time we need to optimize its asset loading and for that:

  • CDN hosting - A CDN or content delivery network is geographically distributed servers to help reduce latency.
  • File compression - This is a method that helps to reduce the size of an asset to reduce the data transfer
  • File concatenation - This reduces the number of HTTP calls
  • Minify scripts - This reduces the overall file size of js and CSS files
  • Parallel downloads - Hosting assets in multiple subdomains can help to bypass the download limit of 6 assets per domain of all modern browsers. This can be configured but most general users never modify these settings.
  • Lazy Loading - Instead of loading all the assets at once, the non-critical assets can be loaded on a need basis.

16. What are the various formatting tags in HTML?

 HTML has various formatting tags:

  • <b> - makes text bold
  • <i> - makes text italic
  • <em> - makes text italic but with added semantics importance
  • <big> - increases the font size of the text by one unit
  • <small> - decreases the font size of the text by one unit
  • <sub> - makes the text a subscript
  • <sup> - makes the text a superscript
  • <del> - displays as strike out text
  • <strong> - marks the text as important
  • <mark> - highlights the text
  • <ins> - displays as added text

17. What are the different kinds of Doctypes available?

The three kinds of Doctypes which are available:

  • Strict Doctype 
  • Transitional Doctype
  • Frameset Doctype

18. Please explain how to indicate the character set being used by a document in HTML?

The character set is defined in <meta> tag inside <head> element.

<!DOCTYPE html><html> <head>   <meta charset="UTF-8">   ...   ... </head> ...</html>

19. What is the difference between <strong>, <b> tags and <em>, <i> tags?

The effect on a normal webpage of the tags <strong>, <b>  and <em>, <i> is the same. <b> and <i> tags stands for bold and italic. These two tags only apply font styling and bold tag <b>, just adds more ink to the text, these tags don't say anything about the text.

Whereas, <strong> and <em> tags represent that the span of text is of strong importance or more importance and emphatic stress respectively than the rest of the text. These tags have semantic meaning.

20. What is the significance of <head> and <body> tag in HTML?

<head> tag provides the information about the document. It should always be enclosed in the <html> tag. This tag contains the metadata about the webpage and the tags which are enclosed by head tag like <link>, <meta>, <style>, <script>, etc. are not displayed on the web page. Also, there can be only 1 <head> tag in the entire Html document and will always be before the <body> tag.

<body> tag defines the body of the HTML document. It should always be enclosed in the <html> tag. All the contents which needs to be displayed on the web page like images, text, audio, video, contents, using elements like <p>, <img>, <audio>, <heading>, <video>, <div>, etc. will always be enclosed by the <body> tag. Also, there can be only 1 body element in an HTML document and will always be after the <head> tag.

21. Can we display a web page inside a web page or Is nesting of webpages possible?

Yes, we can display a web page inside another HTML web page. HTML provides a tag <iframe> using which we can achieve this functionality.

<iframe src=”url of the web page to embed” />

22. How is Cell Padding different from Cell Spacing?

Cell Spacing is the space or gap between two consecutive cells. Whereas, Cell Padding is the space or gap between the text/ content of the cell and the edge/ border of the cell. Please refer to the above figure example to find the difference.

23. How can we club two or more rows or columns into a single row or column in an HTML table?

HTML provides two table attributes “rowspan” and “colspan” to make a cell span to multiple rows and columns respectively.

24. Is it possible to change an inline element into a block level element?

Yes, it is possible using the “display” property with its value as “block”, to change the inline element into a block-level element.

25. In how many ways can we position an HTML element? Or what are the permissible values of the position attribute?

There are mainly 7 values of position attribute that can be used to position an HTML element:

  1. static: Default value. Here the element is positioned according to the normal flow of the document.
  2. absolute: Here the element is positioned relative to its parent element. The final position is determined by the values of left, right, top, bottom.
  3. fixed: This is similar to absolute except here the elements are positioned relative to the <html> element.
  4. relative: Here the element is positioned according to the normal flow of the document and positioned relative to its original/ normal position.
  5. initial: This resets the property to its default value.
  6. inherit: Here the element inherits or takes the property of its parent.

26. In how many ways you can display HTML elements?

  1. inline: Using this we can display any block-level element as an inline element. The height and width attribute values of the element will not affect.
  2. block: using this, we can display any inline element as a block-level element. 
  3. inline-block: This property is similar to inline, except by using the display as inline-block, we can actually format the element using height and width values.
  4. flex: It displays the container and element as a flexible structure. It follows flexbox property.
  5. inline-flex: It displays the flex container as an inline element while its content follows the flexbox properties.
  6. grid: It displays the HTML elements as a grid container.
  7. none: Using this property we can hide the HTML element.

Below are some of the display types which are rarely used:

  1. table
  2. inline-table
  3. table-cell
  4. table-column
  5. table-row
  6. inline-grid
  7. list-item
  8. inherit
  9. initial
  10. table-caption

27. What is the difference between “display: none” and “visibility: hidden”, when used as attributes to the HTML element.

When we use the attribute “visibility: hidden” for an HTML element then that element will be hidden from the webpage but still takes up space. Whereas, if we use the “display: none” attribute for an HTML element then the element will be hidden, and also it won’t take up any space on the webpage.

30. How to include javascript code in HTML?

HTML provides a <script> tag using which we can run the javascript code and make our HTML page more dynamic.

<!DOCTYPE html><html>   <body>    <h1>          <span>This is a demo for </span>          <u><span id="demo"></span></u>   </h1>   <script>       document.getElementById("demo").innerHTML = "script Tag"   </script>   </body></html>

31. When to use scripts in the head and when to use scripts in the body?

If the scripts contain some event-triggered functions or jquery library then we should use them in the head section. If the script writes the content on the page or is not inside a function then it should be placed inside the body section at the bottom. In short, follow below three points:

  1. Place library scripts or event scripts in the head section.
  2. Place normal scripts that do not write anything on the page, in the head section until there is any performance issue.
  3. Place scripts that render something on the web page at the bottom of the body section.

32. What are forms and how to create forms in HTML?

The HTML form is used to collect the user inputs. HTML provides a <form> tag to create forms. To take input from the user we use the <input> tag inside the form so that all collected user data can be sent to the server for processing. There are different input types like ‘button’, ‘checkbox’, ‘number’, ‘text’, ‘password’, ‘submit’ etc.

<form action="/submit_data.php">   <label>Enter your name: </label>   <input type="text" name="name" />    <label>Enter Mobile number </label>   <input type="number" name="mobile_no"/>   <input type="submit" value="Submit"></form>

33. How to handle events in HTML?

HTML allows event trigger actions in browsers using javascript or JQuery. There are a lot of events like ‘onclick’, ‘ondrag’, ‘onchange’, etc.

<!DOCTYPE html><html>   <body style="padding-top:50px">       <h3 id="event_demo">0</h3>       <input type="button" onclick="myFunction()" value="Click Me" />       <input type="reset" onclick="reset()" value="Reset" />   </body>      <script>       function myFunction() {           var value = document.getElementById("event_demo").innerHTML           value = parseInt(value) + 1;           document.getElementById("event_demo").innerHTML = value;       }       function reset() {           document.getElementById("event_demo").innerHTML = 0;       }   </script></html>

34. What are some of the advantages of HTML5 over its previous versions?

Some advantages of HTML5 are:-

  • It has Multimedia Support.
  • It has the capabilities to store offline data using SQL databases and application cache.
  • Javascript can be run in the background.
  • HTML5 also allows users to draw various shapes like rectangles, circles, triangles, etc.
  • Included new Semantic tags and form control tags.

35. How can we include audio or video in a webpage?

HTML5 provides two tags: <audio> and <video> tags using which we can add the audio or video directly in the webpage.

36. What is the difference between <figure> tag and <img> tag?

The <figure> tag specifies the self-contained content, like diagrams, images, code snippets, etc. <figure> tag is used to semantically organize the contents of an image like image, image caption, etc., whereas the <img> tag is used to embed the picture in the HTML5 document.

37. Define Image Map?

Image Map lets a developer map/link different parts of images with the different web pages. It can be achieved by the <map> tag in HTML5, using which we can link images with clickable areas.

<img  src=”image_url” ,  usemap=”#workspace” /><map  name=”workspace”>     <area shape=”rect”  coords=”34, 44, 270, 350” ,  href=”xyz.html” />     <area shape=”rect”  coords=”10, 120, 250, 360” ,  href=”xyz.html” /></map>

38. What are Semantic Elements?

Semantic elements are those which describe the particular meaning to the browser and the developer. Elements like <form>, <table>, <article>, <figure>, etc., are semantic elements.

39. What is the difference between <meter> tag and <progress> tag?

<progress> tag should be used when we want to show the completion progress of a task, whereas if we just want a scalar measurement within a known range or fraction value. Also, we can specify multiple extra attributes for <meter> tags like ‘form’, ‘low’, ‘high’, ‘min’, etc.

40. Is drag and drop possible using HTML5 and how?

Yes, in HTML5 we can drag and drop an element. This can be achieved using the drag and drop-related events to be used with the element which we want to drag and drop.

41. Difference between SVG and Canvas HTML5 element?

SVG Canvas
SVG is a vector based i.e., composed of shapes.  It is Raster based i.e., composed of pixels.
SVG works better with a larger surface. Canvas works better with a smaller surface.
SVG can be modified using CSS and scripts. Canvas can only be modified using scripts.
SVG is highly scalable. So we can print at high quality with high resolution. It is less scalable.

42. What type of audio files can be played using HTML5?

HTML5 supports the following three types of audio file formats:

  1. Mp3
  2. WAV
  3. Ogg

43. What are the significant goals of the HTML5 specification?

These were the target area of the HTML5 specs:

  • Introduction of new element tags to better structure the web page such as <header> tag.
  • Forming a standard in cross-browser behavior and support for different devices and platforms
  • Backward compatible with the older version HTML web pages
  • Introduction of basic interactive elements without the dependency of plugins such as <video> tag instead of the flash plugin.

44. Explain the concept of web storage in HTML5.

This web storage helps in storing some of the static data in the local storage of the browser so that we do not need to fetch it from the server every time we need it. There is a size limit based on different browsers. This helps in decreasing the load time and a smooth user experience. There are two types of web storage that are used to store data locally in HTML5:

  • Local Storage - This helps in storing data that will be retained even though the user reopens the browser. It is stored for each webapp on different browsers.
  • Session Storage - This is used for one session only. After the user closes the browser this gets deleted.

45. What is new about the relationship between the <header> and <h1> tags in HTML5?

As HTML5 was all about better semantics and arrangements of the tags and elements, the <header> tag specifies the header section of the webpage. Unlike in previous version there was one <h1> element for the entire webpage, now this is the header for one section such as <article> or <section>. According to the HTML5 specification, each <header> element must at least have one <h1> tag.

46. Why do you think the addition of drag-and-drop functionality in HTML5 is important? How will you make an image draggable in HTML5?

The drag and drop functionality is a very intuitive way to select local files. This is similar to what most of the OS have copy functionality thus making it very easy for the user to comprehend. Before the native drag and drop API, this was achievable by writing complex Javascript programming or external frameworks like jQuery.

To enable this functionality there is a draggable attribute in the <img> tag and need to set ondrop and ondragover attribute to an eventhandler available in scripts.

<!DOCTYPE HTML><html> <head>   <script>     function allowDrop(ev) {       ev.preventDefault();     }     function drop(ev) {       ...     }   </script> </head> <body>   ...   <div id="div1" ondrop="drop(event)" ondragover="allowDrop(event)" style="border: 1px solid #aaaaaa; width:350px; height: 70px;"></div>   <br>   <img id="drag1" src="img_logo.gif" draggable="true" width="336" height="69">    ... </body></html>

47. Why do we need the MathML element in HTML5?

MathML stands for Mathematical Markup Language. It is used for displaying mathematical expressions on web pages. For this <math> tag is used.

<!DOCTYPE HTML><html> <head> </head> <body><math>  <mrow>    <mrow>      <msup>        <mi> a </mi>        <mn> 2 </mn>      </msup>      <mo> + </mo>      <msup>        <mi> b </mi>        <mn> 2 </mn>      </msup>      <mo> + </mo>      <mn> 2 </mn>      <mn> a </mn>      <mn> b </mn>    </mrow>    <mo> = </mo>    <mn> 0 </mn>  </mrow></math> </body></html>

This displays the equation a2 + b2 + 2ab = 0.

48. What are the server-sent events in HTML5?

The events pushed from the webserver to the browsers are called server-sent events. DOM elements can be continuously updated using these events. This has a major advantage over straight-up polling. In polling, there is a lot of overhead since every time it is establishing an HTTP connection and tearing it down whereas, in server-sent events, there is one long-lived HTTP connection. To use a server-sent event, <eventsource> element is used. The src attribute of this element specifies the URL from which sends a data stream having the events.

<eventsource src = "/cgi-bin/myfile.cgi" />

49. What is the usage of a novalidate attribute for the form tag that is introduced in HTML5?

Its value is a boolean type that indicates whether or not the data being submitted by the form will be validated beforehand. By making this false, forms can be submitted without validation which helps users to resume later also.

<form action = "" method = "get" novalidate>        Name:<br><input type="name" name="sname"><br>       Doubt:<br><input type="number" name="doubt"><br>        <input type="submit" value="Submit"></form>

50. What are raster images and vector images?

Raster Images - The raster image is defined by the arrangement of pixels in a grid with exactly what color the pixel should be. Few raster file formats include PNG(.png), JPEG(.jpg), etc.
Vector Images - The vector image is defined using algorithms with shape and path definitions that can be used to render the image on-screen written in a similar markup fashion. The file extension is .svg

51. How to support SVG in old browsers?

To support old browsers instead of defining the resource of svg in src attribute of <img> tag, it should be defined in srcset attribute and in src the fallback png file should be defined.

<img src="circle.png" alt="circle" srcset="circle.svg">

52. What is a manifest file in HTML5?

The manifest file is used to list down resources that can be cached. Browsers use this information to make the web page load faster than the first time. There are 3 sections in the manifest file

  • CACHE Manifest - Files needs to be cached
  • Network - File never to be cached, always need a network connection.
  • Fallback - Fallback files in case a page is inaccessible
CACHE MANIFEST# 2012-06-16 v1.0.0/style.css/logo.gif/main.jsNETWORK:login.phpFALLBACK:/html/ /offline.html
<!DOCTYPE HTML><html manifest="tutorial.appcache">......</html>

53. What is the Geolocation API in HTML5?

Geolocation API is used to share the physical location of the client with websites. This helps in serving locale-based content and a unique experience to the user, based on their location. This works with a new property of the global navigator object and most of the modern browsers support this.

var geolocation = navigator.geolocation;
Published On: 2024-01-17