MongoDB Interview Questions and Answers

Dive into the world of MongoDB with 'MongoDB Interview Questions and Answers.' This blog is your ultimate resource for preparing for MongoDB-related interviews, featuring a comprehensive collection of questions and detailed answers. Whether you're a database administrator, a software developer, or a MongoDB enthusiast, our guide covers MongoDB fundamentals, querying, data modeling, and best practices. Prepare with confidence and explore the power of MongoDB in modern data-driven applications and solutions.

1. What is MongoDB?

MongoDB is a NoSQL database management system that stores data in a flexible, JSON-like format called BSON. It is known for its scalability, flexibility, and high performance.

2. Explain the difference between MongoDB and traditional relational databases.

MongoDB is a NoSQL database, while traditional relational databases use a structured schema. MongoDB is schema-less, supports horizontal scaling, and is well-suited for handling unstructured or semi-structured data.

3. What are some of the advantages of MongoDB?

Some advantages of MongoDB are as follows:

  • MongoDB supports field, range-based, string pattern matching type queries. for searching the data in the database 
  • MongoDB support primary and secondary index on any fields
  • MongoDB basically uses JavaScript objects in place of procedures
  • MongoDB uses a dynamic database schema
  • MongoDB is very easy to scale up or down
  • MongoDB has inbuilt support for data partitioning (Sharding).

4. What is a Document in MongoDB?

A Document in MongoDB is an ordered set of keys with associated values. It is represented by a map, hash, or dictionary. In JavaScript, documents are represented as objects:
{"greeting" : "Hello world!"}

Complex documents will contain multiple key/value pairs:
{"greeting" : "Hello world!", "views" : 3}

5. What is a Collection in MongoDB?

A collection in MongoDB is a group of documents. If a document is the MongoDB analog of a row in a relational database, then a collection can be thought of as the analog to a table.
Documents within a single collection can have any number of different “shapes.”, i.e. collections have dynamic schemas. 
For example, both of the following documents could be stored in a single collection:

{"greeting" : "Hello world!", "views": 3}{"signoff": "Good bye"}

6. What are Databases in MongoDB?

MongoDB groups collections into databases. MongoDB can host several databases, each grouping together collections. 
Some reserved database names are as follows:

7. What is the Mongo Shell?

It is a JavaScript shell that allows interaction with a MongoDB instance from the command line. With that one can perform administrative functions, inspecting an instance, or exploring MongoDB. 

To start the shell, run the mongo executable:

$ mongod$ mongoMongoDB shell version: 4.2.0connecting to: test>

The shell is a full-featured JavaScript interpreter, capable of running arbitrary JavaScript programs. Let’s see how basic math works on this:

> x = 100;200> x / 5;20

8. What are some features of MongoDB?

  • Indexing: It supports generic secondary indexes and provides unique, compound, geospatial, and full-text indexing capabilities as well.
  • Aggregation: It provides an aggregation framework based on the concept of data processing pipelines.
  • Special collection and index types: It supports time-to-live (TTL) collections for data that should expire at a certain time
  • File storage: It supports an easy-to-use protocol for storing large files and file metadata.
  • Sharding: Sharding is the process of splitting data up across machines.

9. How to add data in MongoDB?

The basic method for adding data to MongoDB is “inserts”. To insert a single document, use the collection’s insertOne method:

> db.books.insertOne({"title" : "Start With Why"})

For inserting multiple documents into a collection, we use insertMany. This method enables passing an array of documents to the database.

10. How do you Update a Document?

Once a document is stored in the database, it can be changed using one of several update methods: updateOne, updateMany, and replaceOne. updateOne and updateMany each takes a filter document as their first parameter and a modifier document, which describes changes to make, as the second parameter. replaceOne also takes a filter as the first parameter, but as the second parameter replaceOne expects a document with which it will replace the document matching the filter.

For example, in order to replace a document:

{   "_id" : ObjectId("4b2b9f67a1f631733d917a7a"),   "name" : "alice",   "friends" : 24,   "enemies" : 2}

11. How do you Delete a Document?

The CRUD API in MongoDB provides deleteOne and deleteMany for this purpose. Both of these methods take a filter document as their first parameter. The filter specifies a set of criteria to match against in removing documents.

For example:
> db.books.deleteOne({"_id" : 3})

12. How to perform queries in MongoDB?

The find method is used to perform queries in MongoDB. Querying returns a subset of documents in a collection, from no documents at all to the entire collection. Which documents get returned is determined by the first argument to find, which is a document specifying the query criteria.

> db.users.find({"age" : 24})

13. What are the data types in MongoDB?

MongoDB supports a wide range of data types as values in documents. Documents in MongoDB are similar to objects in JavaScript. Along with JSON’s essential key/value–pair nature, MongoDB adds support for a number of additional data types. The common data types in MongoDB are:

  • Null
    {"x" : null}
  • Boolean
    {"x" : true}
  • Number
    {"x" : 4}
  • String
    {"x" : "foobar"}
  • Date
    {"x" : new Date()}
  • Regular expression
    {"x" : /foobar/i}
  • Array
    {"x" : ["a", "b", "c"]}
  • Embedded document
    {"x" : {"foo" : "bar"}}
  • Object ID
    {"x" : ObjectId()}
  • Binary Data
    Binary data is a string of arbitrary bytes.
  • Code
    {"x" : function() { /* ... */ }}

14. When to use MongoDB?

You should use MongoDB when you are building internet and business applications that need to evolve quickly and scale elegantly. MongoDB is popular with developers of all kinds who are building scalable applications using agile methodologies.
MongoDB is a great choice if one needs to:

  • Support a rapid iterative development.
  • Scale to high levels of read and write traffic - MongoDB supports horizontal scaling through Sharding, distributing data across several machines, and facilitating high throughput operations with large sets of data.
  • Scale your data repository to a massive size.
  • Evolve the type of deployment as the business changes.
  • Store, manage and search data with text, geospatial, or time-series dimensions.

15. How is Querying done in MongoDB?

The find method is used to perform queries in MongoDB. Querying returns a subset of documents in a collection, from no documents at all to the entire collection. Which documents get returned is determined by the first argument to find, which is a document specifying the query criteria.

For example: If we have a string we want to match, such as a "username" key with the value "alice", we use that key/value pair instead:

> db.users.find({"username" : "alice"})

16. Explain the term “Indexing” in MongoDB.

In MongoDB, indexes help in efficiently resolving queries. What an Index does is that it stores a small part of the data set in a form that is easy to traverse. The index stores the value of the specific field or set of fields, ordered by the value of the field as specified in the index. 
MongoDB’s indexes work almost identically to typical relational database indexes.

Indexes look at an ordered list with references to the content. These in turn allow MongoDB to query orders of magnitude faster. To create an index, use the createIndex collection method.

For example:

> db.users.find({"username": "user101"}).explain("executionStats")

Here, executionStats mode helps us understand the effect of using an index to satisfy queries.

17. What are Geospatial Indexes in MongoDB?

MongoDB has two types of geospatial indexes: 2dsphere and 2d. 2dsphere indexes work with spherical geometries that model the surface of the earth based on the WGS84 datum. This datum model the surface of the earth as an oblate spheroid, meaning that there is some flattening at the poles. Distance calculations using 2sphere indexes, therefore, take the shape of the earth into account and provide a more accurate treatment of distance between, for example, two cities, than do 2d indexes. Use 2d indexes for points stored on a two-dimensional plane.

2dsphere allows you to specify geometries for points, lines, and polygons in the GeoJSON format. A point is given by a two-element array, representing [longitude, latitude]:

{   "name" : "New York City",   "loc" : {       "type" : "Point",       "coordinates" : [50, 2]   }}

A line is given by an array of points:

{   "name" : "Hudson River",   "loc" : {       "type" : "LineString",       "coordinates" : [[0,1], [0,2], [1,2]]   }}

18. Explain the SET Modifier in MongoDB?

If the value of a field does not yet exist, the "$set" sets the value. This can be useful for updating schemas or adding user-defined keys.


> db.users.findOne(){   "_id" : ObjectId("4b253b067525f35f94b60a31"),   "name" : "alice",   "age" : 23,   "sex" : "female",   "location" : "India"}

To add a field to this, we use “$set”:

> db.users.updateOne({"_id" : ObjectId("4b253b067525f35f94b60a31")},... {"$set" : {"favorite book" : "Start with Why"}}) 

19. What do you mean by Transactions?

A transaction is a logical unit of processing in a database that includes one or more database operations, which can be read or write operations. Transactions provide a useful feature in MongoDB to ensure consistency.

MongoDB provides two APIs to use transactions. 

  • Core API: It is a similar syntax to relational databases (e.g., start_transaction and commit_transaction)
  • Call-back API: This is the recommended approach to using transactions. It starts a transaction, executes the specified operations, and commits (or aborts on the error). It also automatically incorporates error handling logic for "TransientTransactionError" and"UnknownTransactionCommitResult".

20. What are MongoDB Charts?

MongoDB Charts is a new, integrated tool in MongoDB for data visualization.

MongoDB Charts offers the best way to create visualizations using data from a MongoDB database.
It allows users to perform quick data representation from a database without writing code in a programming language such as Java or Python.

The two different implementations of MongoDB Charts are:

  • MongoDB Charts PaaS (Platform as a Service)
  • MongoDB Charts Server

21. What is a Replica Set in MongoDB?

To keep identical copies of your data on multiple servers, we use replication. It is recommended for all production deployments. Use replication to keep your application running and your data safe, even if something happens to one or more of your servers.

Such replication can be created by a replica set with MongoDB. A replica set is a group of servers with one primary, the server taking writes, and multiple secondaries, servers that keep copies of the primary’s data. If the primary crashes, the secondaries can elect a new primary from amongst themselves.

22. What are some utilities for backup and restore in MongoDB?

The mongo shell does not include functions for exporting, importing, backup, or restore. However, MongoDB has created methods for accomplishing this, so that no scripting work or complex GUIs are needed. For this, several utility scripts are provided that can be used to get data in or out of the database in bulk. These utility scripts are:

  • mongoimport
  • mongoexport
  • mongodump
  • mongorestore
Published On: 2024-01-17