GoLang Interview Questions and Answers

Embark on a journey to master the Go programming language with 'GoLang Interview Questions and Answers.' This blog is your ultimate resource for preparing for GoLang interviews, offering a comprehensive collection of questions and detailed answers. Whether you're a software developer, a systems programmer, or a Go enthusiast, our guide provides insights into GoLang's core concepts, efficient concurrency, and best practices. Prepare with confidence and explore the world of fast and reliable software development with GoLang.

1. What is GoLang?

Go, often referred to as Golang, is a statically typed, compiled programming language designed for simplicity, efficiency, and ease of use. It was developed by Google engineers.

2. Explain Goroutines in Go.

Goroutines are lightweight threads managed by the Go runtime. They enable concurrent execution of functions, allowing efficient use of resources.

3. Why should one learn Golang? What are the advantages of Golang over other languages?

Go language follows the principle of maximum effect with minimum efforts. Every feature and syntax of Go was developed to ease the life of programmers. Following are the advantages of Go Language:

  • Simple and Understandable: Go is very simple to learn and understand. There are no unnecessary features included. Every single line of the Go code is very easily readable and thereby easily understandable irrespective of the size of the codebase. Go was developed by keeping simplicity, maintainability and readability in mind.
  • Standard Powerful Library: Go supports all standard libraries and packages that help in writing code easily and efficiently.
  • Support for concurrency: Go provides very good support for concurrency using Go Routines or channels. They take advantage of efficient memory management strategies and multi-core processor architecture for implementing concurrency.
  • Static Type Checking: Go is a very strong and statically typed programming language. Statically typed means every variable has types assigned to it. The data type cannot be changed once created and strongly typed means that there are rules and restrictions while performing type conversion. This ensures that the code is type-safe and all type conversions are handled efficiently. This is done for reducing the chances of errors at runtime.
  • Easy to install Binaries: Go provides support for generating binaries for the applications with all required dependencies. These binaries help to install tools or applications written in Go very easily without the need for a Go compiler or package managers or runtimes.
  • Good Testing Support: Go has good support for writing unit test cases along with our code. There are libraries that support checking code coverage and generating code documentation.

4. Is Golang case sensitive or insensitive?

Go is a case-sensitive language.

5. What do you understand by Golang string literals?

String literals are those variables storing string constants that can be a single character or that can be obtained as a result of the concatenation of a sequence of characters. Go provides two types of string literals. They are:

  • Raw string literals: Here, the values are uninterrupted character sequences between backquotes. For example:
  • Interpreted string literals: Here, the character sequences are enclosed in double quotes. The value may or may not have new lines. For example:

6. What is the syntax used for the for loop in Golang? Explain.

Go language follows the below syntax for implementing for loop.

for [condition |  ( init; condition; increment ) | Range]  {     statement(s);     //more statements}  

The for loop works as follows:

  • The init steps gets executed first. This is executed only once at the beginning of the loop. This is done for declaring and initializing the loop control variables. This field is optional as long as we have initialized the loop control variables before. If we are not doing anything here, the semicolon needs to be present.
  • The condition is then evaluated. If the condition is satisfied, the loop body is executed.
    • If the condition is not satisfied, the control flow goes to the next statement after the for loop.
    • If the condition is satisfied and the loop body is executed, then the control goes back to the increment statement which updated the loop control variables. The condition is evaluated again and the process repeats until the condition becomes false.
  • If the Range is mentioned, then the loop is executed for each item in that Range.

Consider an example for for loop. The following code prints numbers from 1 to 5.

package mainimport "fmt"func main() {    // For loop to print numbers from 1 to 5    for j := 1; j <= 5; j++ {        fmt.Println(j)    }}

The output of this code is:


7. What do you understand by the scope of variables in Go?

The variable scope is defined as the part of the program where the variable can be accessed. Every variable is statically scoped (meaning a variable scope can be identified at compile time) in Go which means that the scope is declared at the time of compilation itself. There are two scopes in Go, they are:

  • Local variables - These are declared inside a function or a block and is accessible only within these entities.
  • Global variables - These are declared outside function or block and is accessible by the whole source file.

8. What do you understand by goroutine in Golang?

A goroutine is nothing but a function in Golang that usually runs concurrently or parallelly with other functions. They can be imagined as a lightweight thread that has independent execution and can run concurrently with other routines. Goroutines are entirely managed by Go Runtime. Goroutines help Golang achieve concurrency.

  • In Golang, the main function of the main package is considered the main goroutine. It is the starting point of all other goroutines. These goroutines have the power to start their goroutines. Once the execution of the main goroutine is complete, it means that the program has been completed.
  • We can start a goroutine by just specifying the go keyword before the method call. The method will now be called and run as a goroutine. Consider an example below:
package mainimport (    "fmt"    "time")func main() {    go sampleRoutine()    fmt.Println("Started Main")    time.Sleep(1 * time.Second)    fmt.Println("Finished Main")}func sampleRoutine() {    fmt.Println("Inside Sample Goroutine")}

In this code, we see that the sampleRoutine() function is called by specifying the keyword go before it. When a function is called a goroutine, the call will be returned immediately to the next line of the program statement which is why “Started Main” would be printed first and the goroutine will be scheduled and run concurrently in the background. The sleep statement ensures that the goroutine is scheduled before the completion of the main goroutine. The output of this code would be:

Started MainInside Sample GoroutineFinished Main

9. Is it possible to return multiple values from a function in Go?

Yes. Multiple values can be returned in Golang by sending comma-separated values with the return statement and by assigning it to multiple variables in a single statement as shown in the example below:

package mainimport (\t"fmt")func reverseValues(a,b string)(string, string){    return b,a    //notice how multiple values are returned}func main(){    val1,val2:= reverseValues("interview","bit")    // notice how multiple values are assigned    fmt.Println(val1, val2)}

In the above example, we have a function reverseValues which simply returns the inputs in reverse order. In the main goroutine, we call the reverseValues function and the values are assigned to values val1 and val2 in one statement. The output of the code would be

bit interview

10. Is it possible to declare variables of different types in a single line of code in Golang?

Yes, this can be achieved by writing as shown below:

var a,b,c= 9, 7.1, "interviewbit"

Here, we are assigning values of a type Integer number, Floating-Point number and string to the three variables in a single line of code.

11. What are Go Interfaces?

Go interfaces are those that have a defined set of method signatures. It is a custom type who can take values that has these methods implementation.  The interfaces are abstract which is why we cannot create its instance. But we can create a variable of type interface and that variable can then be assigned to a concrete value that has methods required by the interface. Due to these reasons, an interface can act as two things:

  • Collection of method signatures
  • Custom types

They are created by using the type keyword followed by the name needed for the interface and finally followed by the keyword interface. The syntax goes as follows:

type name_of_interface interface{// Method signatures}

Consider an example of creating an interface of the name “golangInterfaceDemo” having two methods demo_func1() and demo_func2(). The interface will be defined as:

// Create an interfacetype golangInterfaceDemo interface{    // Methods    demo_func1() int    demo_func2() float64}

Interface also promotes abstraction. In Golang, we can use interfaces for creating common abstractions which can be used by multiple types by defining method declarations that are compatible with the interface. Conside the following example:

package main import "fmt" // "Triangle" data typetype Triangle struct {\tbase, height float32} // "Square" data typetype Square struct {\tlength float32} // "Rectangle" data typetype Rectangle struct {\tlength, breadth float32} // To calculate area of trianglefunc (triangle Triangle) Area() float32 {\treturn 0.5 * triangle.base * triangle.height} // To calculate area of squarefunc (square Square) Area() float32 {\treturn square.length * square.length} // To calculate area of rectanglefunc (rect Rectangle) Area() float32 {\treturn rect.length * rect.breadth} // Area interface for achieving abstractiontype Area interface {\tArea() float32} func main() {\t// Declare and assign values to varaibles\ttriangleObject := Triangle{base: 20, height: 10}\tsquareobject := Square{length: 25}\trectObject := Rectangle{length: 15, breadth: 20} \t// Define a variable of type interface\tvar shapeObject Area \t// Assign to "Triangle" type variable to the Area interface\tshapeObject = triangleObject\tfmt.Println("Triangle Area = ", shapeObject.Area()) \t// Assign to "Square" type variable to the Area interface\tshapeObject = squareobject\tfmt.Println("Square Area = ", shapeObject.Area()) \t// Assign to "Rectangle" type variable to the Area interface\tshapeObject = rectObject\tfmt.Println("Rectangle Area = ", shapeObject.Area())}

In the above example, we have created 3 types for the shapes triangle, square and rectangle. We have also defined 3 Area() functions that calculate the area of the shapes based on the input object type passed. We have also defined an interface named Area and we have defined the method signature Area() within it. In the main function, we are creating the objects, assigning each object to the interface and calculating the area by calling the method declared in the interface. Here, we need not know specifically about the function that needs to be called. The interface method will take care of this considering the object type. This is called abstraction. The output of the above code will be:

Triangle Area =  100Square Area =  625Rectangle Area =  300

12. Why is Golang fast compared to other languages?

Golang is faster than other programming languages because of its simple and efficient memory management and concurrency model. The compilation process to machine code is very fast and efficient. Additionally, the dependencies are linked to a single binary file thereby putting off dependencies on servers.

13. What do you understand by each of the functions demo_func() as shown in the below code?

//DemoStruct definitiontype DemoStruct struct {    Val int}//A.func demo_func() DemoStruct {    return DemoStruct{Val: 1}}//B.func demo_func() *DemoStruct {    return &DemoStruct{}}//C.func demo_func(s *DemoStruct) {    s.Val = 1}

A. Since the function has a return type of the struct, the function returns a copy of the struct by setting the value as 1.
B. Since the function returns *DemoStruct, which is a pointer to the struct, it returns a pointer to the struct value created within the function.
C. Since the function expects the existing struct object as a parameter and in the function, we are setting the value of its attribute, at the end of execution the value of Val variable of the struct object is set to 1.

14. Can you format a string without printing?

Yes, we can do that by using the Sprintf command as shown in the example below:

return fmt.Sprintf ("Size: %d MB.", 50)

The fmt.Sprintf function formats a string and returns the string without printing it.

15. What do you understand by Type Assertion in Go?

The type assertion takes the interface value and retrieves the value of the specified explicit data type. The syntax of Type Assertion is:

t := i.(T)

Here, the statement asserts that the interface value i has the concrete type T and assigns the value of type T to the variable t. In case i does not have concrete type T, then the statement will result in panic.

For testing, if an interface has the concrete type, we can do it by making use of two values returned by type assertion. One value is the underlying value and the other is a bool value that tells if the assertion is completed or not. The syntax would be:

t, isSuccess := i.(T)

Here, if the interface value i have T, then the underlying value will be assigned to t and the value of isSuccess becomes true. Else, the isSuccess statement would be false and the value of t would have the zero value corresponding to type T. This ensures there is no panic if the assertion fails.

16. How will you check the type of a variable at runtime in Go?

In Go, we can use a special type of switch for checking the variable type at runtime. This switch statement is called a “type switch”.

Consider the following piece of code where we are checking for the type of variable v and performing some set of operations.

switch v := param.(type) { default:    fmt.Printf("Unexpected type %T", v)case uint64:    fmt.Println("Integer type")case string:    fmt.Println("String type")}

In the above code, we are checking for the type of variable v, if the type of variable is uint64, then the code prints “Integer type”. If the type of variable is a string, the code prints “String type”. If the type doesn\'t match, the default block is executed and it runs the statements in the default block.

18. What are the uses of an empty struct?

Empty struct is used when we want to save memories. This is because they do not consume any memory for the values. The syntax for an empty struct is:

a := struct{}{}

The size of empty struct would return 0 when using println(unsafe.Sizeof(a))

The important use of empty struct is to show the developer that we do not have any value. The purpose is purely informational. Some of the examples where the empty struct is useful are as follows:

  • While implementing a data set: We can use the empty struct to implement a dataset. Consider an example as shown below.
map_obj := make(map[string]struct{})for _, value := range []string{"interviewbit", "golang", "questions"} {   map_obj[value] = struct{}{}}fmt.Println(map_obj)

The output of this code would be:

map[interviewbit:{} golang:{} questions:{}]

Here, we are initializing the value of a key to an empty struct and initializing the map_obj to an empty struct.

  • In graph traversals in the map of tracking visited vertices. For example, consider the below piece of code where we are initializing the value of vertex visited empty struct.
visited := make(map[string]struct{})for _, isExists := visited[v]; !isExists {    // First time visiting a vertex.    visited[v] = struct{}{}}
  • When a channel needs to send a signal of an event without the need for sending any data. From the below piece of code, we can see that we are sending a signal using sending empty struct to the channel which is sent to the workerRoutine.
func workerRoutine(ch chan struct{}) {    // Receive message from main program.    <-ch    println("Signal Received")    // Send a message to the main program.    close(ch)}func main() {    //Create channel    ch := make(chan struct{})        //define workerRoutine    go workerRoutine(ch)    // Send signal to worker goroutine    ch <- struct{}{}    // Receive a message from the workerRoutine.    <-ch    println(“Signal Received")    }

The output of the code would be:

Signal ReceivedSignal Received

19. How can we copy a slice and a map in Go?

  • To copy a slice: We can use the built-in method called copy() as shown below:
slice1 := []int{1, 2}slice2 := []int{3, 4}slice3 := slice1copy(slice1, slice2)fmt.Println(slice1, slice2, slice3)

In the above example, we are copying the value of slice2 into slice1 and we are using the variable slice3 for holding a reference to the original slice to check if the slice has been copied or not. The output of the above code would be:

[3 4] [3 4] [3 4]

If we want to copy the slice description alone and not the contents, then we can do it by using the = operator as shown in the code below:

slice1 := []int{1, 2}slice2 := []int{3, 4}slice3 := slice1slice1 = slice2fmt.Println(slice1, slice2, slice3)

The output of the code will be:

[3 4] [3 4] [1 2]

Here, we can see that the contents of slice3 are not changed due to the = operator.

  • To copy a map in Go: We can copy a map by traversing the keys of the map. There is no built-in method to copy the map. The code for achieving this will be:
map1 := map[string]bool{"Interview": true, "Bit": true}map2 := make(map[string]bool)for key, value := range map1 {\tmap2[key] = value}

From this code, we are iterating the contents of map1 and then adding the values to map2 to the corresponding key.

If we want to copy just the description and not the content of the map, we can again use the = operator as shown below:

map1 := map[string]bool{"Interview": true, "Bit": true}map2 := map[string]bool{"Interview": true, "Questions": true}map3 := map1map1 = map2    //copy descriptionfmt.Println(map1, map2, map3)

The output of the below code would be:

map[Interview:true Questions:true] map[Interview:true Questions:true] map[Interview:true Bit:true]

20. How is GoPATH different from GoROOT variables in Go?

The GoPATH variable is an environment variable that is used for symbolizing the directories out of $GoROOT which combines the source and the binaries of Go Projects. The GoROOT variable determines where the Go SDK is located. We do not have to modify the variable unless we plan to use multiple Go versions. The GoPATH determines the root of the workspace whereas the GoROOT determines the location of Go SDK.

21. In Go, are there any good error handling practices?

In Go, the errors are nothing but an interface type where any type implementing the single Error() method is considered as an error. Go does not have try/catch methods as in other programming languages for handling the errors. They are instead returned as normal values. Following is the syntax for creating the error interface:

type error_name interface {    Error() string}

We use this whenever we apprehend that there are possibilities where a function can go wrong during type conversions or network calls. The function should return an error as its return variable if things go wrong. The caller has to check this error value and identify the error. Any value other than nil is termed as an error.

As part of good error handling practices, guard classes should be used over if-else statements. They should also be wrapped in a meaningful way as they can be passed up in the call stack. Errors of the same types should not be logged or handled multiple times.

22. Which is safer for concurrent data access? Channels or Maps?

Channels are safe for concurrent access because they have blocking/locking mechanisms that do not let goroutines share memory in the presence of multiple threads.

Maps are unsafe because they do not have locking mechanisms. While using maps, we have to use explicit locking mechanisms like mutex for safely sending data through goroutines.

23. How can you sort a slice of custom structs with the help of an example?

We can sort slices of custom structs by using sort.Sort and sort.Stable functions. These methods sort any collection that implements sort.Interface interface that has Len(), Less() and Swap() methods as shown in the code below:

type Interface interface {        // Find number of elements in collection        Len() int                // Less method is used for identifying which elements among index i and j are lesser and is used for sorting        Less(i, j int) bool                // Swap method is used for swapping elements with indexes i and j        Swap(i, j int)}

Consider an example of a Human Struct having name and age attributes.

type Human struct {    name string    age  int}

Also, consider we have a slice of struct Human of type AgeFactor that needs to be sorted based on age. The AgeFactor implements the methods of the sort.Interface. Then we can call sort.Sort() method on the audience as shown in the below code:

// AgeFactor implements sort.Interface that sorts the slice based on age field.type AgeFactor []Humanfunc (a AgeFactor) Len() int           { return len(a) }func (a AgeFactor) Less(i, j int) bool { return a[i].age < a[j].age }func (a AgeFactor) Swap(i, j int)      { a[i], a[j] = a[j], a[i] }func main() {    audience := []Human{        {"Alice", 35},        {"Bob", 45},        {"James", 25},    }    sort.Sort(AgeFactor(audience))    fmt.Println(audience) }

This code would output:

[{James 25} {Alice 35} {Bob 45}]

24. What do you understand by Shadowing in Go?

Shadowing is a principle when a variable overrides a variable in a more specific scope. This means that when a variable is declared in an inner scope having the same data type and name in the outer scope, the variable is said to be shadowed. The outer variable is declared before the shadowed variable.

Consider a code snippet as shown below:

var numOfCars = 2    // Line 1type Car struct{\tname string\tmodel string\tcolor string}cars:= [{            name:"Toyota",            model:"Corolla",            color:"red"        },        {\t    name:"Toyota",            model:"Innova",            color:"gray"\t}]func countRedCars(){    for i:=0; i<numOfCars; i++{\tif cars[i].color == "red" {\t\tnumOfCars +=1    // Line 2\t\tfmt.Println("Inside countRedCars method ", numOfCars)    //Line 3\t}    }\t    }

Here, we have a function called countRedCars where we will be counting the red cars. We have the numOfCars variable defined at the beginning indicated by the Line 1 comment. Inside the countRedCars method, we have an if statement that checks whether the colour is red and if red then increments the numOfCars by 1. The interesting point here is that the value of the numCars variable after the end of the if statement will not be affecting the value of the numOfCars variable in the outer scope.

25. What do you understand by variadic functions in Go?

The function that takes a variable number of arguments is called a variadic function. We can pass zero or more parameters in the variadic function. The best example of a variadic function is fmt.Printf which requires one fixed argument as the first parameter and it can accept any arguments.

  • The syntax for the variadic function isHere, we see that the type of the last parameter is preceded by the ellipsis symbol (...) which indicates that the function can take any number of parameters if the type is specified.
  • Inside the variadic function, the ... type can be visualised as a slice. We can also pass the existing slice (or multiple slices) of the mentioned type to the function as a second parameter. When no values are passed in variadic function, the slice is treated as nil.
  • These functions are generally used for string formatting.
  • Variadic parameter can not be specified as return value, but we can return the variable of type slice from the function.

Consider an example code below:

func function_name(arg1, arg2...type)type{    // Some statements}
package main import(    "fmt"    "strings") // Variadic function to join strings and separate them with hyphenfunc joinstring(element...string)string{    return strings.Join(element, "-")} func main() {     // To demonstrate zero argument   fmt.Println(joinstring())       // To demonstrate multiple arguments   fmt.Println(joinstring("Interview", "Bit"))   fmt.Println(joinstring("Golang", "Interview", "Questions"))    }

Here, we have a variadic function called joinstring that takes a variable number of arguments of a type string. We are trying to join the arguments separated by the hyphen symbol. We are demonstrating the variadic function behaviour by first passing 0 arguments and then passing multiple arguments to the function. The output of this code is:


26. What do you understand by byte and rune data types? How are they represented?

byte and rune are two integer types that are aliases for uint8 and int32 types respectively.
The byte represents ASCII characters whereas the rune represents a single Unicode character which is UTF-8 encoded by default.

  • The characters or rune literals can be represented by enclosing in single quotes like \'a\',\'b\',\'\'.
  • Rune is also called a Code point and can also be a numeric value. For example, 0x61 in hexadecimal corresponds to the rune literal a.

27. Write a Go program to swap variables in a list?

Consider we have num1=2, num2=3. To swap these two numbers, we can just write: num1,num2 = num2, num1

The same logic can be extended to a list of variables as shown below:

package mainimport "fmt"func swapContents(listObj []int) {        for i, j := 0, len(listObj)-1; i < j; i, j = i+1, j-1 {                listObj[i], listObj[j] = listObj[j], listObj[i]        }}func main() {\tlistObj := []int{1, 2, 3}\tswapContents(listObj)\tfmt.Println(listObj)}

The code results in the output:

[3 2 1]

28. Write a GO Program to find factorial of a given number.

Factorial of a number is the product of multiplication of a number n with every preceding number till it reaches 1. Factorial of 0 is 1.

Example:fact(1) = 1fact(3) = 3 * 2 * 1 = 6fact(5) = 5 * 4 * 3 * 2 * 1 = 120


package mainimport "fmt"//factorial functionfunc factorial(n int) int {    if n == 0 {        return 1    }    return n * factorial(n-1)}func main() {    fmt.Println(factorial(7))}

The output of this code would be:


29. Write a Go program to find the nth Fibonacci number.

To find the nth Fibonacci number, we have to add the previous 2 Fibonacci numbers as shown below.

fib(0)=0fib(1)=1fib(2)=1+0 = 1fib(3)=1+1 = 2fib(4)=2+1 = 3: : fib(n)=fib(n-1)+fib(n-2)


package mainimport "fmt"//nth fibonacci number functionfunc fibonacci(n int) int {        if n < 2 {            return n        }        return fibonacci(n-1) + fibonacci(n-2)}func main() {    fmt.Println(fibonacci(7))}

The output of this code would be:


30. Write a Golang code for checking if the given characters are present in a string.

We can do this by using the Contains() method from the strings package.

package main  import (    "fmt"    "strings")  // Main functionfunc main() {      // Create and initialize    string1 := "Welcome to Interviewbit"    string2 := "Golang Interview Questions"      //  Check for presence Using Contains() method of strings package    res1 := strings.Contains(string1, "Interview")    res2 := strings.Contains(string2, "Go")      // Displaying the result    fmt.Println("Is \'Interview\' present in string1 : ", res1)    fmt.Println("Is \'Go\' present in string2: ", res2)  }

The output of this code is:

Is \'Interview\' present in string1 :  trueIs \'Go\' present in string2:  true
Published On: 2024-01-17