Robot Framework Interview Questions

Embark on a journey into the world of test automation with 'Robot Framework Interview Questions.' This blog is your essential guide for preparing for interviews related to the Robot Framework, featuring a comprehensive collection of questions and detailed answers. Whether you're a QA engineer, a test automation specialist, or a Robot Framework enthusiast, our resource covers Robot Framework fundamentals, test case creation, libraries, and best practices. Prepare with confidence and explore the power of efficient test automation with the Robot Framework.

1. What is Robot Framework?

Robot Framework is an open-source automation framework for acceptance testing, acceptance test-driven development (ATDD), and robotic process automation (RPA). It uses a keyword-driven approach to make tests readable and easy to create.

2. Explain the architecture of Robot Framework.

The architecture of Robot Framework consists of test data, test libraries, and the execution engine. Test data is written in a tabular format using keywords, and test libraries provide the actual implementation of keywords. The execution engine interprets the test data and executes the corresponding test libraries.

3. What are the benefits of using the Robot Framework?

The Benefits of the Robot Framework are listed below:

  • The Robot Framework is a free and open-source framework.
  • It\'s easy to set up and use, and it allows you to create and run test cases. Any beginner may get started with the robot framework because it is simple to grasp and does not require much testing knowledge.
  • It allows you to write keyword-driven, behaviour-driven, or data-driven test cases.
  • It\'s a fantastic method to support third-party libraries. The most popular is the Selenium Library, which is easy to install and use in robot frameworks.
  • Minimal threshold: Because the Robot framework is a keyword-driven framework, it just requires a basic understanding of programming. In other words, practically every member of a quality assurance company\'s project team can use it. Variables, functions, and return values can all be used as options.
  • Complete web/ mobile support: This product works well on the web and on mobile devices (both in the form of end-to-end and atomic tests).
  • Usage of tags: Instead of tests, users can assign tags. Any data that can be used to identify a test, such as a test ID, a list of components utilized in the test, and so on, can be included in such tags. This solution enables the creation of a link between tests and software requirements, as well as the selection of the appropriate configuration test vector.
  • You shouldn\'t need much input to write common test result documents. Without the need to submit any further commands, all reports are generated automatically. Combining the outcomes of multiple test runs is possible. The following file types are produced as a result of these findings:
    • Report.html – high-level results with no detail; 
    • Output.xml – test results in XML format; 
    • Log.html – test results in the form of HTML structure;
  • With the use of the Robot framework and robot at the same time, parallel running is allowed. A basic root command is a common planned application situation. Without a doubt, all of the exams should be created with this in mind and should not interfere with one another.

4. What are the names of all the file formats that the Robot framework supports?

We commonly use files written in simple text format (usually in the .robot form, or in the format of .txt) in Robot Framework, but we can also use files written in Tab separated format or TSV. The plain text data can then be embedded in reStructured text format files.

The space-separated format, in which bits of data, such as keywords and their arguments, are separated from each other with two or more spaces, is the most frequent way to construct Robot Framework data. The pipe separated format, in which the separator is the pipe character surrounded by spaces (|), is another option.

The --extension option can be used to change the default extension of executed files, which is .robot. Although resource files can utilize the .robot extension, it is advised that they use the dedicated .resource extension. The UTF-8 encoding must be used to save files that contain non-ASCII characters.

reStructuredText files are also supported by Robot Framework, allowing standard Robot Framework data to be inserted within code blocks. With reStructuredText files, either the .rst or .rest extension can be used, but the --extension option must be used to enable parsing when executing a directory.

5. What are the disadvantages of using the robot framework?

Following are the disadvantages of using the robot framework:

  • Debugging capability is not included: In other words, the product lacks options for the standard breakpoint configuration. As a result, a user must employ time slips or display something different in the log.
  • Many difficulties in the Ride IDE: When using the "text editor" mode as well as the tabular mode, the programme will occasionally crash. It\'s also worth noting that some third-party plugins aren\'t compatible with specific libraries because autocomplete isn\'t available (for example, SeleniumLibrary).
  • Support for third-party extensions and libraries is unstable: This framework does not support libraries that have previously been developed. Of course, you can make your own, but this is pointless because such extensions cannot be used many times.

6. Explain the hierarchical structure for arranging test cases in the context of the robot framework.

The following is the hierarchical framework for arranging test cases:

  • In test case files, test cases are constructed.
  • A test suite containing the test cases in a test case file is created automatically.
  • A higher-level test suite is a directory containing test case files. As its child test suites, such a test suite directory has suites produced from test case files.
  • A test suite directory can contain other test suite directories, and the hierarchy can go as deep as needed.
  • A specific initialization file can be found in test suite directories that configures the newly established test suite.

In addition, there are the following:

  • Test libraries that contain the most basic keywords.
  • Variables and higher-level user keywords are stored in resource files.
  • Variable files are more flexible than resource files when it comes to creating variables.

7. What are the different types of variables in the context of the robot framework?

Variables are a key component of Robot Framework, and they can be utilized in almost every test data scenario. They\'re most typically used as arguments for keywords in the Test Case and Keyword sections, although they\'re also allowed in all settings. A variable cannot be used to specify a standard keyword name, but the BuiltIn keyword Run Keyword can be used to achieve the same result.

Following are the different types of variables:

  • Scalar Variables:

The scalar variable syntax like ${var} is the most popular way to use variables in Robot Framework test data. The variable name is substituted with its value as-is when this syntax is used. Variable values are often strings, but variables can also hold any object, such as numbers, lists, dictionaries, or even bespoke objects.


*** Test Cases ***Constants   Log    Hello   Log    Hello, world!!Variables   Log    ${GREET}   Log    ${GREET}, ${NAME}!!

The use of scalar variables is demonstrated in the example above. Both the above test cases are similar if the variables ${GREET} and ${NAME} are available and assigned to the strings Hello and world, respectively. When a scalar variable is used without any text or other variables around it, like in ${GREET} above, the variable is substituted with its value, which can be any object. If the variable isn\'t used alone, as in ${GREER}, ${NAME}!!, its value is transformed to a string before being concatenated with the other data.

  • List Variables:

When a variable, such as ${EXAMPLE}, is used as a scalar, its value is utilized exactly as it is. If a variable\'s value is a list or looks like a list, it can also be used as a list variable, such as @{EXAMPLE}. The list is enlarged in this scenario, and each item is sent in as a distinct argument.

*** Test Cases ***Constants   Login    user    passwordList Variable   Login    @{CREDENTIALS}

In the above example, the variable @{CREDENTIALS} has values [‘user’, ‘password’]. Robot Framework keeps all of its variables in one internal storage location and allows them to be used as scalars, lists, or dictionaries. If you want to use a variable as a list, its value must be a Python list or a list-like object. Strings are not allowed to be used as lists in Robot Framework, although other iterable objects like tuples and dictionaries are.

  • Dictionary Variables:

A dictionary variable is a variable containing a Python dictionary or a dictionary-like object. The syntax for a dictionary variable is &{EXAMPLE}. In practice, this means the dictionary is enlarged, and individual items are supplied to the keyword as named arguments. For example, 

*** Test Cases ***Constants   Login    user=user1    password=password1Dict Variable   Login    &{CREDENTIALS}

In the above example, assuming that the variable &{CREDENTIALS} has value {‘user’: ‘user1’, ‘password’: ‘password1’}, the two test cases are equivalent.

  • Environment Variables:

The %{ENV_VAR_NAME} syntax in Robot Framework allows you to use environment variables in your test data. They\'re only allowed to use string values. By separating the variable name and the default value with an equal sign, such as %{ENV_VAR_NAME = default_value}, you can give a default value that will be used if the environment variable does not exist.

Environment variables set in the operating system before the test execution are available during it, and the keywords Set Environment Variable and Delete Environment Variable, both available in the OperatingSystem library, can be used to create new ones or delete existing ones. Because environment variables are global, environment variables defined in one test case can be reused in subsequent test cases. Changes to environment variables, on the other hand, are ineffective after the test has been completed.

8. What is the name of the dependency that you must need in order to install and use the RIDE editor in the context of the robot framework?

wxPython and pywin32 are the names of the dependency and package that you must use to install and use RIDE editor.

9. Is it possible to use the Selenium library to speed up or slow down the execution of test cases?

Yes, we can use the Set Selenium Speed keyword to modify the execution speed.

10. What do you understand about test setup and teardown in the context of the robot framework?

Many additional test automation frameworks provide a similar test setup and teardown capability as Robot Framework. In a nutshell, a test setup occurs prior to the execution of a test case, whereas a test teardown occurs after the execution of a test case. Setups and teardowns in the Robot Framework are essentially regular keywords with arguments.

The terms "setup" and "teardown" are always used interchangeably. It is feasible to develop higher-level user keywords for this purpose if they need to handle numerous independent jobs. Alternatively, you can use the BuiltIn keyword Run Keywords to execute several keywords.

In two ways, the test teardown is unique. For example, it is executed even if a test case fails, so it can be used for cleanup tasks that must be completed regardless of the status of the test case. Furthermore, even if one of the keywords in the teardown fails, all of the others are executed.

The Test Setup and Test Teardown settings in the Setting section are the simplest way to specify a setup or teardown for test cases in a test case file. Each test case may additionally have its own setup and teardown. They are defined in the test case section with the [Setup] or [Teardown] parameters, and they override any conceivable Test Setup and Test Teardown options. There is no setup or teardown if there is no keyword after a [Setup] or [Teardown] setting. The value NONE can also be used to indicate that a test has no setup or teardown.

11. What are the different test case styles in the context of the robot framework?

There are various alternative approaches to writing test cases. Test cases describing a workflow can be built using either a keyword-driven or a behaviour-driven approach. Using a data-driven approach, you may evaluate the same workflow with different input data.

  • Keyword-driven style: Workflow tests, like the Valid Login test, are made up of a number of keywords and their possible arguments. In the Valid Login example, the system is first put into the initial state (Open Login Page), then something is done to it (Input Name, Input Password, Submit Credentials), and lastly the system is confirmed to have performed as intended (Welcome Page Should Be Open).
  • Data-driven design: Another technique to writing test cases is the data-driven approach, which hides the real test workflow by using only one higher-level keyword, commonly created as a user keyword. When you need to test the same scenario with varied input and/or output data, these tests come in handy. Although it would be possible to utilise the same keyword in each test, the test template functionality allows you to define the keyword just once.
  • Behaviour-driven design: Test cases can also be written as requirements that non-technical project stakeholders must comprehend. The cornerstone of a technique known as Acceptance Test-Driven Development (ATDD) or Specification by Example is a set of executable criteria.
    The Given-When-Then approach, popularized by Behavior Driven Development, is one technique to construct these requirements/tests (BDD). The initial state is commonly specified with a keyword beginning with the word Given, the actions with a keyword beginning with When, and the expectations with a keyword beginning with Then when constructing test cases in this style. If a phase has multiple actions, a keyword beginning with And or But can be used.

12. What do you understand about Jenkins Freestyle Project?

When it comes to robot framework interview questions, this is a basic question; yet, it is critical. Jenkins\' project will become increasingly important as you progress up the corporate ladder to the firm that recruited you. Jenkins\' project is nothing more than a series of tasks that can be run repeatedly to obtain similar outcomes, and these stages also include the activities that must be taken once the build is finished.

Freestyle refers to improvised or unrestricted performance. In Jenkins, a freestyle project is one that spans numerous operations. It could be a pipeline, a build, or a script run.

A freestyle project is a common build job or assignment, according to the Jenkins wiki. Running tests, creating or packaging an application, producing a report, or even running commands are all examples of this. Data is collected before any tests are done. Jenkins can also help with this. Jenkins collects data in a variety of ways, depending on what is being accomplished and the data\'s intended use.

For example, a real-world scenario would entail collecting application artifacts following builds. In terms of management, Jenkins enables us to send reports at any defined stage, which may include artifact information or application logs being sent to a log management entity like Elasticsearch.

13. Differentiate between Robot Framework and Selenium.

  • Robot Framework: Robot Framework is an open-source automation framework with a wide range of applications. It can be used to automate test processes and robotic processes (RPA). Robot Framework is a flexible and open framework. To construct powerful and versatile automation solutions, Robot Framework may be connected with nearly any other tool. Robot Framework is free to use and does not require a license.
  • Selenium: Selenium is a popular open-source Web automation testing framework. It was created in 2004 as an internal tool at Thought Works by Jason Huggins. Selenium is a browser automation tool that works with a variety of browsers, platforms, and computer languages. Selenium can run on a variety of platforms, including Windows, Linux, Solaris, and Macintosh. Furthermore, it supports mobile operating systems such as iOS, Windows Mobile, and Android. Selenium supports a wide range of programming languages through the use of language-specific drivers. Selenium supports the following languages: C#, Java, Perl, PHP, Python, and Ruby. Selenium Web driver is currently the most popular with Java and C#. Selenium test scripts can be written in any of the supported programming languages and run in most recent browsers directly. Selenium supports Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, and Safari browsers.

The following table lists the differences between robot framework and selenium: 

Robot Framework  Selenium 
Robot is a Python acceptance/functional testing framework. Robot is a simple plain text-based automated test framework that may be readily extended with Python or Java frameworks. It can run on both the. net-based IronPython and the Java-based Jython. Selenium is an open-source web application testing tool. Selenium is a robust testing tool that can transmit common Python commands to a variety of browsers, regardless of design differences. It also includes extensions to simulate user interaction with browsers, as well as a distribution server for scaling browser allocation and infrastructure for W3C WebDriver implementations, which allow you to develop interchangeable code for all major web browsers.
Robot has a large library and can be readily coupled with Selenium to automate the testing of front-end components in the browser. It\'s mostly a front-end component and functionality testing tool for browsers.
In Robot, there is no built-in way to work with fixtures, but it can be integrated with unittest and used that way. By using PyTest to write your Selenium WebDriver tests, you gain access to Pytest\'s rich fixture model.
Robot Framework allows you to define a set of fixed, particular data states for a collection of tests (group-fixtures) by combining it with unittest. When using Pytest\'s fixture model, one can group fixtures.
Test data generators are supported. Input data for tests is generated by data generators. The test is then performed for each piece of input data generated in this manner. The Robot Framework Faker library is a library created by Robot. It has 147 keywords that are used to generate random test data. Selenium can generate test data by making use of a library like Faker or Fake-factory.
Mocks are objects that mimic the actions of real-world items. Using mocks allows you to test a specific section of code in isolation (with other parts mocked when needed). For mocking, Robot Framework can use Python\'s mock library. By default, Selenium has support for mocking.

14. Differentiate between Robot Framework and Cucumber.

  • Robot Framework: Acceptance Testing, Acceptance Test-Driven Development (ATTD), and Robotic Process Automation (RPA) are all supported by the Robot Platform open-source automation framework. It employs a keyword-driven testing technology method, and testing libraries written in Python or Java can be used to expand its capabilities.
  • Cucumber: Cucumber is a behaviour-driven development (BDD) testing tool (BDD). It provides a method for writing tests that anyone, regardless of technical knowledge, can comprehend. Before developers write their programs, users (business analysts, product owners) submit scenarios or acceptance tests that describe the system\'s behaviour from the customer\'s perspective for assessment and approval by the product owners. The Ruby programming language is used in the Cucumber framework.

The following table lists the differences between Robot Framework and Cucumber:

Robot Framework Cucumber 
It is based on the Python programming language. It is based on the Ruby programming language.
The robot is a Python acceptance/functional testing framework. The robot is a simple plain text-based automated test framework that may be readily extended with Python or Java frameworks. It can run on both the. net-based IronPython and the Java-based Jython. Cucumber is a behaviour-driven development automation tool. The specifications are written in plain English, making them understandable to all parties involved. Cucumber Framework can also be used with languages other than Ruby, such as Java, JavaScript, and Scala.
The robot framework allows you to test code on a client, such as a web browser. The robot has a large library and can be readily coupled with Selenium to automate the testing of front-end components in the browser. Cucumber and Selenium can be used to test the front-end, such as the GUI; they work well together to test your front-end.
In Robot Framework, group fixtures can be made by integrating them with the unit tests.

Group Fixtures may be made in two steps using the cucumber extension Aruba:

  • Create a fixtures-directory. 
  • Create fixture files in this directory.
The Robot Framework has Apache License 2.0. The Cucumber Framework has an MIT License.
The Robot Framework can be used to generate a test suite.
Cucumber allows you to arrange tests using tag Cucumber feature files or individual tests. Then, during test execution, you may specify the tag (grouped) tests to execute using a Cucumber tagged expression.

15. Code Snippet: Robot Framework Test Case

*** Test Cases ***
Sample Test Case
    Open Browser    chrome
    Input Text      username    exampleuser
    Input Text      password    123456
    Click Button    Submit
    Close Browser

16. Online Resources:

Published On: 2024-01-17